History of Art Graduate Department of Art

In memoriam, George Hawken, 1946–2016

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

With sorrow we announce the death of George Hawken, Professor Emeritus, on December 12th 2016. George was a brilliant draughtsman and master of intaglio printmaking, whose highly individual drawing style seemed to conjure new metamorphic entities into being, whether the subject was a portrait or the four elements. His “Metamorphosis Folio” was aptly named. Generations of students have profited from George’s remarkable technical mastery and patience, always imparted in support of students finding their own identity and voice. With Colin Campbell, George conceived and implemented the Visual Studies Program, first in the Department of Art, and then in the Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design. The bare facts of George’s many exhibitions are in his curriculum vitae; but his gentle humour and exceptional contributions as an artist and teacher can only be intimated.

https://www.daniels.utoronto.ca/people/hawkeng

The Class of ’51

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

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L to R: Charles Comfort, John Golding, and Stephen Vickers.

Shirley (Tyte) Beatty, Class of ’51, sent along this photograph of Charles Comfort, John Golding, and Stephen Vickers. Students of that era in what was then called the Department of Art and Archaeology were taught by such eminent figures as the distinguished medievalists Peter Brieger and Stephen Vickers, and the major Canadian artist and Director of the National Gallery, Charles Comfort (a founding faculty member of the Department). Shirley Beatty remembers going to Comfort’s class every Saturday morning for a full year to the army reserve barracks on the east side of St. George Street at Bloor, where students painted in different genres (portrait, still life) to learn about actual historical techniques of art-making (including egg tempera and fresco). The Fine Art studio courses, like courses in philosophy, history, and modern languages, were part of the core art history and archaeology program.

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John Golding, “E.C.M. SD.” 1976. Oil on canvas. 182.88 x 152.4 cm. Gift by bequest of Murray Davis, (UC 4T8), 1998. Collection of University College, University of Toronto

Beatty’s cohort in the Class of ’51 included a young student from Mexico, John Golding (1929–2012). Golding was a notable graduate of the Department of Art and Archaeoloy, who went on to become both as an eminent artist, teaching painting at the Royal College of Art, and a major art historian at the Courtauld Institute of Art. His book Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914 (1959) is a richly considered standard study, republished in numerous revised editions. Golding co-curated the landmark exhibitions Picasso: Sculptor/Painter, at the Tate Gallery in 1994; and Matisse/Picasso, in 2002–03, at the London Tate Modern, the Grand Palais in Paris, and MoMA New York. His book Paths to the Absolute (2000), Golding’s consideration of the meanings of twentieth century abstraction, won the prestigious Mitchell prize in 2002.

In 2014 Shirley Beatty, who had a career in film production and editing for the United Church of Canada, generously endowed the William R. and Shirley Beatty Undergraduate Scholarships for students in History of Art with the highest level of financial need. This is to ensure students would be able to have access to the fulfilling experience of studying art and art history in our department that she had had, regardless of their financial circumstances. The gift is also meant to send a larger message about the importance of the study of art and the humanities, and the way they enrich life, no matter what the career. “Hopefully, with a little bit of help from this scholarship they will have less of a financial burden. Perhaps they’ll be able to enjoy the university experience more fully, as I did, and focus more on fulfilling their dreams instead of just dreaming them.”

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Two graduates of the Class of ’51, Sybil Salvin Rampen (L) and Shirley (Tyte) Beatty (R) at the Joshua Creek Heritage Art Centre.

Another member of the Class of ’51, Sybil Salvin Rampen is an artist and educator. Following her BA in the University of Toronto in Art and Archaeology she pursued studies in Paris and London, and attained an Art Specialist designation from the Ontario College of Education. She is the founder of the Joshua Creek Heritage Art Centre near Oakville, where she teaches art and mentors emerging artists. http://www.joshuacreekarts.com/sybil-rampen/ Set in beautiful gardens, it is a cultural facility promoting creative projects, local heritage, community, outreach, accessibility, and ecology through workshops, films, musical events, and lectures. As a contribution to the history of the department, Sybil Rampen gave her beautiful (illustrated) undergraduate notes taken in Peter Brieger’s classes to the Department of Art library.

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Architectural Historian Revels In The Fourth Dimension Of Buildings – Sound

Friday, October 14, 2016

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Joseph Clarke is fascinated by buildings. He loves the way they look and the ways they are designed to serve different functions.

But he mostly loves the way they sound.

An assistant professor in the Department of History of Art at the Faculty of Arts & Science who joined U of T this fall, Clarke studies relationships between architectural form, technology, and the acoustics of structures from the 18th century to the present. Trained as an architect and a historian, he is particularly interested in evolving models of how we experience the spaces in which we find ourselves. His current book, Reverberation and the Idea of Acoustic Space, explores how acoustic research has influenced European architecture since the eighteenth century.

He spoke with Arts & Science News to share what we might learn about buildings if we stopped to listen to them.

You are an architect and a historian. How do the two fit together in your work, particularly with regards to the acoustics of buildings?

My current research is on the history of acoustics and the idea of acoustic space in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, when architects were struggling to understand how sound behaves in large theatres and opera houses and, in the process, wrestling with fundamental questions about the visual and auditory perception of space.

Architects and architectural historians are typically taught to focus on the visible characteristics of buildings. But sound can affect the occupants of a building on an especially visceral level. If you spend an hour in a room with no echo or reflections of sound, you may have so much difficulty orienting yourself in the space that you’ll experience dizziness, nausea, and even hallucinations!

“Good acoustics” is not a universal criterion. The way people perceive the sound of space has shifted dramatically over time. It can also be a political issue, especially in public spaces, where it often determines whose voices can be heard and by whom. Plato is said to have limited the size of his republic to the number of people who could listen to an orator without amplification. During the French Revolution, there were designs for amplification devices to broadcast the voices of political speakers to an audience of thousands. So the spatial behaviour of sound is not just a technical problem to be solved, but an important issue for cultural history as well.

j-clarke-_500x350_1-300x210So, is it also possible to design spaces to control which voices are heard?

Absolutely, there have been many efforts to design the physical environment to enhance or suppress particular sounds or voices. Europeans started applying acoustic theory to the design of space in a systematic way in the 17th century—a palace with speaking tubes embedded in the walls so a king could give orders to his servants in distant rooms, or a dungeon where unsuspecting prisoners could be detained together that would carry the sounds of their conversations to the ears of listening guards—things like that.

Since then, acoustics has been a central design issue in legislative buildings—and also in concert halls, which are no less political, but in which conflict is redirected artistically. It’s a design issue in academic buildings, too. Auditorium spaces are generally designed to make the lecturer’s words as loud and clear as possible while muffling the voices of everyone else. Some of these cases seem more benign than others, but as a general principle I would argue that acoustical design is always a technique of power.

How will you be teaching these ideas to students at U of T?

I’ll be teaching an introduction to the history of modern architecture and cities next term, which is open to all undergraduates. This course means a lot to me because I believe everybody has a stake in understanding how the physical environment is shaped. The city of Toronto figures prominently in the course, and my goal is to sharpen students’ ability to think about of why our city is the way it is.

My graduate seminar this semester examines how 19th-century architects transformed their field in response to the Industrial Revolution, to accommodate new kinds of buildings and new construction technologies, and also to represent people’s aspirations for industrial modernity.

Why did you choose to come to U of T?

I like being at a big, diverse university. My work has always been interdisciplinary, and the size and breadth of the academic community here offers a lot of opportunities to collaborate.

Toronto is booming, and for an architect, it’s probably one of the most exciting places in North America right now. And I’ve always been interested in Canada more generally. There’s been a longstanding fascination with space, landscape, and sound in modern Canadian culture—you see it in figures like Marshall McLuhan, Glenn Gould, and the composer R. Murray Schafer, who popularized the word “soundscape.” In a cultural context like this, I hope to have much to contribute.

This story was originally published on the University of Toronto Arts & Science News Site (Oct. 13, 2016)

Article by: Sean Bettam

Katie Jakobiec – Scott Opler Research Fellow in Architectural History at Worcester College, University of Oxford

Thursday, October 13, 2016

katie-jakobiec-rs2Katie Jakobiec is currently the Scott Opler Research Fellow in Architectural History at Worcester College, University of Oxford. She is working on a book project examining the architecture of commodities c. 1550–1650—buildings and spaces that were at the centre of mercantile exchanges around the Baltic Sea region.

She completed her MA and PhD in the Graduate Department of Art at the University of Toronto, under the supervision of Professor Christy Anderson.

Emre Gönlügür (PhD, 2014) awarded Research Support Grant by Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

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Emre Gönlügür (PhD, 2014) was awarded a Research Support Grant by the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art for his research project entitled “Unheimlich in Foreign Land? Sir Henry Bulwer’s Gothic Castle in Constantinople.” The project aims at a reconstruction of the aesthetic and political context of British Ambassador Bulwer’s neo-Norman mansion built on the remote, uninhabited Isle of Yassiada in the Sea of Marmara in 1859. Emre will conduct research at the British National Archives and Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies.

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